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Fake Tilt-shift miniature o più semplicemente … fotografie che sembrano miniature surreali come dei veri e propri plastici!

In realtà la radice del neologismo tilt-shift deriva più propriamente dal risultato che si ottiene fotografando con uno speciale tipo di ottica che permette, attraverso l’utilizzo di dispositivi di decentramento solitamente utilizzabili per correzioni prospettiche, di effettuare scatti con solo alcune parti dell’inquadratura messe a fuoco. Si ottengono così fotografie di paesaggi che sembrano macro di modellini. Gli obiettivi di questo tipo sono molto costosi.

Per cercare di ottenere risultati simili (ma non uguali) ci viene in aiuto la post-produzione con la quale si possono ottenere … “Fake Tilt-shift”.

Una "Fake Tilt-shift" è una fotografia di un paesaggio reale modificato appunto con dei programmi di Fotoritocco (come ad esempio Photoshop o GIMP) fino a farla sembrare una miniatura in scala, cioè un modello (modellismo plastico) rimpicciolito della realtà. Questo effetto si crea poiché si modifica la sfocatura creando un effetto il più possibile vicino ad una Fotografia Macro.

Il risultato è una Fotografia che sembra irreale, come se fosse un mondo di giocattoli.

Eccoci allora a riassumere i principali how-too per diventare padroni della tecnica anche in lingua originale…

(this article contains also tips on English language)



How too in Italiano su Photoshop

Come Creare una Fotografia "Fake Tilt-shift miniature"

Per creare questo effetto è necessario un programma di Fotoritocco come ad esempio Photoshop.

Iniziate con una Foto reale di un paesaggio con degli edifici o dei mezzi di trasporto. Il risultato migliore lo ricevete con delle immagini in cui non è inquadrato il cielo, non ci dovessero essere neanche delle persone in primo piano, altrimenti non raggiungete l'effetto di irreale.

E' molto importante scegliere la foto adatta, orientati ad esempio sulle foto scattate dall’alto verso il basso (vedi esempi) …

Iniziate aprendo la foto scelta con Photoshop.
Dopodiché create una Maschera:

clicca sul bottone dell immagine 1. (Edit in Quick Mask Mode) oppure cliccando la " Q".

Poi usi il "Gradient Tool", (immagine 2.) oppure cliccando il tasto "G" con il "Gradient tool" devi colorare quella parte della fotografia che se fotografata veramente in miniatura con una lente macro, non sarebbe sfocata.

Devi quindi immaginare che si tratta veramente di una miniatura, ed devi evidenziare in rosso quella parte che non dovrà diventare sfocata. il risultato dovrebbe essere come nel immagine 4.

Successivamente clicchi sul bottone evidenziato nell'immagine 5. , passi quindi alla modalità standard. Viene selezionato automaticamente la parte da Sfocare (cioè quella che non era in rosso).

Ora devi andare su Filtri>> "Blur" (Sfoca) e selezionare "Lens Blur" (comandi in inglese, non so come viene chiamato nella versione in italiano). Ti compare la finestra del immagine 6. imposti la sfocatura a piacere (ca. 20) e clicchi su OK.

Per aumentare l'effetto irreale puoi aumentare la "Saturazione" (il Colore) ed eliminare alcuni particolari nella Foto per farli sembrare più Giocattoli.


(thanks to ai-net.it)



1st How too in English with Photoshop


With a very little effort, you can take existing photographs of everyday scenes and make it look like they're actually of miniature models.
It doesn't take much to fool the mind of the viewer, but there are a few basic rules you can follow to help convince your audience that they're looking at a railway set rather than the real world; see the section on picking the right photo at the bottom of this page. You'll need a copy of Photoshop CS or later to follow this tutorial.



STEP 1 SET GRADIENT MASK


Open up your chosen image, press Q to switch to Quick Mask mode, then click on the Gradient tool. Set the colours to the default black and white by pressing D, then switch them around by clicking on the double-headed arrow next to the colour chips. Next, set up the gradient as shown above. Make sure you select the repeating gradient type – fourth icon along, looks like a cylinder.


STEP 2 APPLY MASK



Choose where you want the focal point of the photo to be – usually about halfway between top and bottom – and click and hold at that point. Drag the line of the gradient tool upwards, then release it towards the top of the frame; it doesn't hurt to be a little off the pure vertical. You should get something like what's shown above. Press Q again to switch back from Quick Mask mode.


STEP 3 APPLY LENS BLUR

Chose Filter Blur Lens Blur to bring up the Lens Blur filter pane. It can take a little tinkering to get the settings just right, but try the above values as a starting place. The Iris section controls the shape of the virtual iris in the lens; a hexagonal iris is most normal, and you could try rounding out the sharp corners of the geometric shape using Blade Curvature. Rotation controls the angle of the hexagon. The Specular Highlights section adds little glints to bright areas, but it's usually not a good idea to drop the value of the Threshold much below 250. Click OK to apply the effect, then clear your selection.


STEP 4 ADJUST CURVES


To add to the feeling of artificiality, bring up the Curves palette (go Image Adjustments Curves) and drag the RGB curve to something like the example above. It blows out the colours in the image, and makes it look more as if it's built from polystyrene and lichen. There are a few more of my examples here.

NOTES ON PICKING THE RIGHT PHOTOGRAPH



We're used to seeing models from above, so the mind can more easily be fooled by pictures taken looking down than those looking up or at eye level. But almost as important is the lighting in your photo. Models are usually lit by a lamp, so you'd expect to see sharp, directional shadows and bright, almost harsh light. That's partly why the picture of Charing Cross station (left), with its dull, omnidirectional light, doesn't work as well as the picture pointing towards the London Eye (right). Plus, building the model on the left would be the work of years, so the mind tends to be a little more sceptical. Below is the original of the photo used in this tutorial.

(Thanks to recedinghairline.co.uk)


2nd How too in English with Photoshop

This tutorial has been produced using Photoshop CS2 on a PC.

Step 1: Photo Selection

When choosing a photograph for the tilt-shift effect, bear in mind that you want to give the impression of a miniature model. Miniature models are usually viewed from above so try and choose a photo with an elevated viewpoint. Buildings, roads, traffic and railways are excellent choices but make sure there is a reasonable wide angle of view.

For this tilt-shift photography Photoshop tutorial, we are using a picture of Times Square during a typical day:

Even before the tilt-shift effect has been applied, it's not too hard to imagine the scene as if it were a model.

To find an appropriate image, we suggest you browse through the flickr tilt-shift fakes pool. Pay attention to licensing terms though - if you are going to manipulate and display your work it will need to be released under the Creative Commons licence.

Step 2. Enter Quick Mask Mode

Open the image in Photoshop and enter Quick Mask Mode by pressing Q on the keyboard, or select the Quick Mask icon as shown in the Tool Palette below:

Step 3. Choose Gradient Tool

Choose the Gradient Tool by pressing G on the keyboard, or select the Gradient Tool icon. Be sure to choose the Reflected Gradient option (the fourth icon along before the Mode drop-down).

Step 4. Draw A Line

Draw a vertical line; the start point will be the centre of the in-focus area, and the end will be where the transition from in-focus to out-of-focus is completed. This step, and the subsequent two steps, will need a fair degree of trial and error. If you look closely at the image below, you will see the line has been drawn from the back door of the silver car up to just under the word Hollywood beneath the street lamp.

Once you release the mouse button the area of focus will appear as a red band across the image, as shown in the next step.

Step 5. View Mask Area

Before progressing, review the position of the red mask. The middle of the mask is where the in-focus area will be, gradually losing focus towards the edges. Note the out-of-focus effect is yet to be applied.

Step 6. Return To Standard Mode

Press Q on the keyboard to exit Quick Mask Mode and return to Standard Mode, or press the icon on the Tool Palette as shown below. The area to apply the focus effect to will be surrounded by the "marching ants" selection lines:

Step 7. Open Lens Blur Interface

Choose Filter > Blur > Lens Blur:

Step 8. Review Effect And Tweak Settings

Hopefully, you will now see a pleasing focus effect. The Photoshop default settings for Lens Blur seem to work well, but experiment with them to improve the effect. If you are unhappy with the position of the focus area, go back to Step 4 and try drawing a line in a different place or with a different centre of focus.

Step 9. Exit Lens Blur Interface

Assuming you were happy with the image preview in Step 8, click OK to accept the settings:

Step 10. Remove Selection Boundary

Press CTRL-D on the keyboard to remove the "marching ants" selection bounday:

Step 11. Open Hue/Saturation Adjustment Interface

You may want to boost the colour saturation, to improve the effect. Remember that model scenery is often brightly painted so enhancing the saturation helps trick the eye. Press CTRL-U on the keyboard or select Image > Adjustments > Hue/Saturation:

Step 12. Boost Saturation

In this example, we boost the Master saturation to +40.

Step 13. Open Curves Adjustment Interface

It may help to increase the contrast of the image slightly using the Curves adjustment. Press CTRL-M on the keyboard or select Image > Adjustments > Curves:

Step 14. Adjust Curves

In this example we use a very small S-shaped curve to increase contrast. Take care not to over-do this step; in fact, it may not be necessary at all.

Step 15. Finished

Here's the finished image.


(Thanks to tiltshiftphotography.net)

Here other examples:




Ecco invece il fantastico e costoso Nikkor Decentrabile e basculabile con il quale si fanno le vere TILT-SHIFT:

All the original images used in this tutorials are released under a Creative Commons licence by flickr members or other fonts with the same licence.


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